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              2019-07-20   星期六   農歷六月十八   
              姚惠芬:走進威尼斯雙年展的中國蘇繡大師
              來源:中國非物質文化遺產網 作者:中國非物質文化遺產保護中心 創建時間:2017-05-26 16:40:00


              蘇繡  亮相威尼斯

              2017年5月11日(當地時間),第57屆威尼斯國際藝術雙年展中國館在意大利水城威尼斯的軍械庫和處女花園拉開帷幕。本屆威尼斯雙年展總主題是“藝術永生”(Viva Arte Viva),中國館的主題則是“不息”(Continuum—Generation by Generation)。

              圖2 姚惠芬參展作品《骷髏幻戲圖》系列

              圖3 姚惠芬參展作品《馬遠水圖》系列

              圖4 姚惠芬參展作品《精衛填海》系列

              研究員級高級工藝美術師、國家級非物質文化遺產代表性項目蘇繡的代表性傳承人姚惠芬,共有34幅作品亮相威尼斯雙年展,包括《骷髏幻戲圖》9幅、《馬遠水圖》12幅、與策展人邱志杰合作的《精衛填海》11幅、與藝術家湯南南合作的大型水墨《遺忘之海》1幅,以及《美女骷髏圖》1幅,這是中國刺繡歷史上蘇繡作品第一次進入威尼斯雙年展。

              圖5 中外觀眾觀賞姚惠芬作品

              其中,最讓姚惠芬感到滿意的,是以南宋名畫為藍本繡制的《骷髏幻戲圖》。中間7幅由當代藝術家鄔建安設計,由姚惠芬及其繡娘團隊繡制而成。這組蘇繡作品從技術層面而言,運用傳統蘇繡的近50種針法作為媒介進行創作,并一反傳統運針方式,將幾十種傳統針法集中在作品中表現矛盾與沖突。

              圖6 南宋李嵩《骷髏幻戲圖》(來源:網絡)

              圖7 姚惠芬參展作品《骷髏幻戲圖》局部細節

              古老的蘇繡要“照進”現實生活,除了要變革內容,重點就是要創新刺繡“語言”,讓傳統民間藝術煥發新的活力,更好向世界表達。為此,姚惠芬、姚惠琴及其繡娘團隊在《骷髏幻戲圖》的創作過程中,不斷研究、探索傳統針法的運針規律和絲線的材料屬性,在具體紋路和色彩運用上也大膽突破常規。早先,蘇繡中的平針針法多用于服飾、被面之類的花樣紋飾,近來則漸被“亂針”“虛實針”等針法取代,不少傳統平針針法更被棄之不用。但在《骷髏幻戲圖》的繡制過程中,她反其道而行之,將最為傳統的平針針法用到極致。

              圖8 姚惠芬工作照


              傳承  生生而不息

              姚惠芬出生于蘇州刺繡世家,自幼耳濡目染,10歲開始學習刺繡,幾年之后便在當地嶄露頭角。幾經曲折和努力,姚惠芬遇到了在她后來刺繡路上影響至深的兩位老師:一位是清代蘇繡藝術的代表人物、“仿真繡”大師沈壽門下第三代傳人牟志紅,還有一位是蘇繡虛實亂針繡的創始人、蘇繡大師任嘒閑。在兩位大師的精心培育和授教下,姚惠芬開始了長達十幾年的學藝生涯。她系統學習了諸多蘇繡的理論和技法,兼收并蓄、博采眾長,技藝突飛猛進,事業蒸蒸日上。

              圖9 姚惠芬與合作藝術家鄔建安在展會現場合影

              提及與姚惠芬的合作,藝術家邱志杰表示,他正是被姚惠芬這種尊重師承脈絡而打動。他還記得第一次去她工作室的場景:“別的手藝人會在繡莊里放‘山花’獎,但只有姚惠芬、姚惠琴把她倆的整個師承關系掛在刺繡館里。比如,亂針繡里,她倆的老師是任嘒閑,任嘒閑的老師是楊守玉,楊守玉的老師是呂鳳子;在仿真繡里,她倆的老師是牟志紅,牟志紅的老師是金靜芬,金靜芬的老師是沈壽。這些傳承的脈絡清晰可見,我想,這種傳承機制不就是中國人的‘生生不息’嗎?”

              每一位中國藝術家都有著各自的師承,每一件小小的藝術品背后,都綿延著藝術發展、代際傳承的“不息”文脈,使得傳統藝術可以在古與今、傳統與先鋒的張力中煥發新的活力,也正是在這樣代代相傳的接力中,聚集起了不息的能量場,“針線不停、語言不死;千年蘇繡,生生不息”,或許,這正是中國館對“藝術永生”這一展覽主題的解答。

              圖10 姚惠芬與外國觀眾在展會現場交流


              突破  首創“簡針繡”

              在姚惠芬看來,刺繡并非簡單重復的技藝,而是一個創造性的勞動。在傳承先師的基礎上,姚惠芬注重研究當代亂針繡的風格與創新,在回歸傳統針法的基礎上首創了“簡針繡”刺繡技法;運用傳統的刺繡語言表現了當代蘇州園林的全新表現形式與審美內涵;以亂針繡和平針繡的針法組合去刻畫寫意水墨畫的全新氣象,在自己的刺繡生涯中取得了階段性的創新突破,也實現了自己的刺繡理想。

              “簡針繡”是姚惠芬歷時十年探索研究所獨創的一種刺繡技法,它有別于傳統概念的亂針繡針法技藝,主要理念是融中國傳統線描與西方素描技法于一體,以簡為道、以簡為美,以最少的針法、最素的線色、最精的線條,構成當下蘇繡全新的表現形式與審美內涵。


              圖11 姚惠芬簡針繡作品—素描少女肖像

              圖12 姚惠芬簡針繡作品—達芬奇自畫像

              姚惠芬認為,“筆墨當隨時代”,刺繡也應該“當隨時代”。傳統刺繡是不斷發展的,怎么創新,用什么去創新,是刺繡工作者所面臨的重要問題。蘇繡要發展,必須先把傳統刺繡技藝扎實學好,把老一輩刺繡大師的經典作品研究好,把前輩身上的高尚精神繼承好,再結合自己的實際情況,運用新的理念、新的技法、新的想象力去創作出新的作品,只有這樣,才能繼承傳統、突破傳統、創新發展。

              (文字:江曉雯;圖片:除已注明來源的圖片外,均由姚惠芬本人提供)

              編輯:江曉雯
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