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              2019-07-07   星期日   農歷六月初五   小暑
              藏醫藥浴法列入人類非物質文化遺產代表作名錄
              來源:中國非物質文化遺產網 作者:中國非物質文化遺產保護中心 創建時間:2018-11-28 20:40:00

              聯合國教科文組織保護非物質文化遺產政府間委員會(以下簡稱“委員會”)第13屆常會于2018年11月26日至12月1日在毛里求斯首都路易港召開。當地時間11月28日下午,委員會經過評審,通過決議,將中國申報的“藏醫藥浴法——中國藏族有關生命健康和疾病防治的知識與實踐”列入聯合國教科文組織人類非物質文化遺產代表作名錄(以下簡稱“代表作名錄”)。

              圖1 會議現場

              圖2 會議現場

              藏醫藥浴法,藏語稱“瀧沐”,是藏族人民以土、水、火、風、空“五源”生命觀和隆、赤巴、培根“三因”健康觀及疾病觀為指導,通過沐浴天然溫泉或藥物煮熬的水汁或蒸汽,調節身心平衡,實現生命健康和疾病防治的傳統知識和實踐。該遺產項目既體現了相關社區民眾通過沐浴防病、療疾的民間經驗,也是以《四部醫典》為代表的傳統藏醫理論在當代健康實踐中的繼承和發展。

              作為藏醫學“索瓦日巴”的重要組成部分,藏醫藥浴法以青藏高原的雅礱河谷和宗喀山脈的藏族農牧區為集中傳承區域,廣泛流布于西藏、青海、四川、甘肅、云南等地的藏區,為保障藏族民眾的生命健康和防治疾病發揮著重要作用。該遺產項目承載著藏族天文歷算、自然博物、儀式信仰、行為規范、起居飲饌等傳統知識,同時也通過藏族神話、傳說、史詩、戲劇、繪畫、雕刻等文化表現形式得以廣泛傳播,既為藏族人民提供了持續的認同感,又豐富著人類的健康知識與實踐,是世界文化多樣性和人類創造力的見證。

              圖3 曼巴索朗次仁借助曼唐,向學生講授《四部醫典》記載的藏藥浴藥材(作者:嘎務多吉)

              圖4 其木居曼巴(世襲家族醫生)丹松扎巴(左二)為學生講授辨認藥浴藥材的方法(作者:劉罡)

              藏醫藥浴法列入代表作名錄,有助于從整體上提升非物質文化遺產的可見度,并提高對其重要意義的認知,促進不同民族關于生命健康和尊重自然的對話,也體現出國際社會對保護傳統知識與實踐類非物質文化遺產的重視。委員會決議指出,該遺產項目“凸顯了有關自然界和宇宙的傳統知識的重要性,提供了人類與其環境間可持續關系的積極例證”。

              圖5 該遺產項目代表性傳承人明珠(左)指導瀧沐覺堪(制藥師)煎熬“五味甘露”(作者:關確才讓)

              積極參加申遺工作,是中國履行《保護非物質文化遺產公約》締約國責任和義務的重要內容,也是我們就遺產項目保護做出的莊嚴承諾。藏醫藥浴法列入代表作名錄,是一個新的起點。相關部門將根據業已制定的保護計劃,積極支持相關社區、群體和個人組織實施系列保護措施,做好藏醫藥浴法的傳承與實踐。

              圖6 青海省藏醫院的曼堯(藥浴助理)正在進行藥浴操作和護理(作者:關確才讓)

              經國務院批準,藏醫藥浴法相關項目分別于2008年和2014年被列入國家級非物質文化遺產代表性項目名錄。為確保該遺產項目的存續力,增強傳承活力,在文化和旅游部的領導下,由中國非物質文化遺產保護中心作為協調單位,西藏自治區文化廳作為牽頭單位,協同相關社區、群體于2015年9月成立保護工作協調小組,聯合制定了《藏醫藥浴法五年保護計劃(2019—2023)》,實施協同保護與發展行動。西藏林周縣甘曲鎮甘曲村民委員會、青海省海東市互助土族自治縣松多藏族鄉松多村民委員會等8個社區及西藏藏醫學院、青海省藏醫院、西藏藏醫藥學會等12個群體,將建立健全相關傳習中心和研究機構,開展各種形式的培訓活動,推廣社區健康實踐;將傳統傳承方式引入高等教育,鞏固代際傳承,通過編纂相關教材和為中小學生編寫知識讀本,并提高青少年的保護意識;同時通過加強資源普查和系統化建檔工作、開展學術研究、協助推進地方法律法規建設、妥善管理實踐場所、組織多種形式的宣傳活動,使這一傳統知識與實踐得以傳承發展。

              圖7 廣大民眾在每年藏歷七月沐浴節廣泛參與該遺產項目的實踐(作者:劉斌)

              隨著藏醫藥浴法的列入,我國共有40個項目列入聯合國教科文組織非物質文化遺產相關名錄,其中32個項目列入代表作名錄,7個項目列入急需保護名錄,1個項目入選優秀實踐名冊。這體現了我國日益提高的履約能力和非物質文化遺產保護水平,對于增強社區、群體和個人的認同感和自豪感,激發傳承保護的自覺性和積極性,繼承和弘揚中華優秀傳統文化,具有重要意義。


              【相關背景】

              聯合國教科文組織保護非物質文化遺產政府間委員會是《保護非物質文化遺產公約》(以下簡稱《公約》)的法定機關,由《公約》最高權力機關締約國大會選出的24個締約國組成,任期4年;締約國大會每兩年對半數委員國進行一次換屆選舉。委員會每年舉行一屆常會。

              聯合國教科文組織認為,非物質文化遺產既維系著相關社區、群體和個人的認同感和持續感,也是確保世界文化多樣性與人類創造力的重要資源。所有列入相關名錄名冊的遺產項目都須符合《公約》操作指南規定的列入標準。《公約》定義的非物質文化遺產包括以下方面:(1)口頭傳統和表現形式,包括作為非物質文化遺產媒介的語言;(2)表演藝術;(3)社會實踐、儀式、節慶活動;(4)有關自然界和宇宙的知識和實踐;(5)傳統手工藝。“藏醫藥浴法”的申報從整體上歸為第4類遺產領域。

              編輯:周奇
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